Arguments for Evolutionary Democracy

  • Jean-Paul Gagnon
Part of the The Theories, Concepts and Practices of Democracy book series (PSTCD)


I investigate the sciences for their use of the terms ‘democracy’ and ‘democratic’. Findings suggest that particles do not behave in democratic ways as they are driven by strict forces. The key is to investigate whether these forces allow for ‘democratic’ things to manifest when unicellular life emerges from the ‘prebiotic soup’. A small selection of eusocial and social nonhumans likegametes, crows and bonobos are described. We see that nonhumans do not practice complex democracy. Rather, nonhumans have perfected specific behaviours that we as humans explain as ‘democratic’ behaviours. A discussion follows arguing that evidence supports the idea of an underlying basic democracy. We should look to nonhuman democratic specialization to see what we can borrow from them to use in our moral systems.


Sperm Competition Vote System Slime Mould Amphiphilic Molecule Interstellar Space 
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Copyright information

© Jean-Paul Gagnon 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Paul Gagnon
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Political Science and International StudiesUniversity of QueenslandAustralia

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