Advertisement

Timber Logging in Clayoquot Sound, Canada: Community-Corporate Partnerships and Community Rights

  • Heike Fabig
  • Richard Boele
Chapter
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

Clayoquot Sound, an area of about 265,000 hectares1 on the central west of Vancouver Island (known as the Central Region), is the largest contiguous area of temperate rainforest in the world. With 75 per cent of its ancient forest still intact, it is the region with the largest biomass of any intact forest system remaining on earth. Clayoquot Sound is special because of its size but also because of its relative rarity, as temperate rainforests comprised less than 0.2 per cent of the earth’s land surface before clearing commenced (FOCS 2001a-f). Clayoquot Sound was declared a United Nations Biosphere Reserve in January 2000.2

Keywords

Indigenous People British Columbia Stakeholder Management Forest Stewardship Council Transnational Corporation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ali, Saleem H. 2000. ‘Shades of Green: NGO Coalitions, Mining Companies and the Pursuit of Negotiating Power’, in Jem Bendell, ed., Terms for Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, Trevor J. and Roger Hayter (eds). 1997. Trouble in the Rainforest: British Columbia’s Forest Economy in Transition. Canadian Western Geographical Series, Volume 33, Victoria: Western Geographical Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bendell, Jem and David Murphy. 2000. ‘Planting the Seeds of Change: Business-NGO Relations on Tropical Deforestation’, in Jem Bendell, ed., Terms for Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Boele, Richard, Heike Fabig and David Wheeler. 2001a. ‘Shell, Nigeria and the Ogoni. A Study in Unsustainable Development I, The Story of Shell, Nigeria and the Ogoni People — Environment, Economy, Relationships: Conflict and Prospects for Resolution’, Journal of Sustainable Development 9(2): 74–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boele, Richard, Heike Fabig and David Wheeler. 2001b. ‘Shell Nigeria and the Ogoni. A study in Unsustainable Development II, Corporate Social Responsi-bility and “Stakeholder Management” versus a Rights-Based Approach to Sustainable Development’, Journal of Sustainable Development 9(3): 121–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boutilier, Robert G. and Ann Svendsen. 2001. ‘From Conflict to Collaboration: Stakeholder Bridging and Bonding in Clayoquot Sound’, unpublished paper. Available at http://www.cim.sfu.ca.
  7. British Columbia Treaty Commission. 2001a. ‘About the Commission’. Available at http://www.bctreaty.net/files/bctreaty.html.
  8. British Columbia Treaty Commission. 2001b. ‘Policies and Procedures’. Available at http://www.bctreaty.net/files/policies.html.
  9. British Columbia Treaty Commission, 2001c. ‘First Nations — Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council’. Available at http://www.bctreaty.net/nations/nuuchahnulth.html.
  10. Burger, Julian. 1987. Report from the Frontier: the State of the World’s Indigenous Peoples. London: Cultural Survival and Zed Books.Google Scholar
  11. Cassidy, Frank and Norman Dale. 1988. After Native Claims? The Implications of Comprehensive Claims Settlements for Natural Resources in British Columbia. Lantzville: Oocichan Books and Halifax: Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  12. Chow, Victoria Y. 2000. ‘Using Partnerships for Land Conservation, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Services’, Student Case Write-Ups (F&ES 882 Fall 1999). Available at http://www.yale.edu/yff/assets/images/chow.pdf.
  13. Cowan, Jane K., Marie-Benedicte Dembour and Richard A. Wilson. 2001. Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delgamuukw Gisday’wa National Process. 2000. ‘Delgamuukw News and Events — A Backgrounder’, Delgamuukw Gisday’wa National Process. July 2000. Available at http://www.delgamuukw.org/news/news.htm.
  15. Drushka, Ken. 1999. In the Bight: the BC Forest Industry Today. Madeira Park (BC): Harbour Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Elkington, John. 1997. Cannibals with Forks, the Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business. Oxford: Capstone.Google Scholar
  17. Estes, Ralph. 1996. Tyranny of the Bottom Line: Why Corporations Make Good People Do Bad Things. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001a. ‘Clayoquot Sound Campaign’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/campaigns/clayoquot/clayoquot_campaign.html.
  19. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001b. ‘Is There Hope in the Biosphere Reserve?’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/campaigns/clayoquot/biosphere_reserve.htm.
  20. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001c. ‘What is Clayoquot Sound and What are Ancient Temperate Rainforests?’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/campaigns/clayoquot/what_is_clayoquot.htm.
  21. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001d. ‘Temperate Rainforest Fact Sheet and Clayoquot Sound Update’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/logging_updates/fact_sheet.html.
  22. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001e. ‘Iisaak and Interfor: Not in the Same League’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/campaigns/clayoquot/iisaak_and_interfor.htm.
  23. FOCS (Friends of Clayoquot Sound). 2001f. ‘Our Campaigns’. Available at http://ancientrainforests.org/home.htm.
  24. Forest Futures. 2001. ‘First Nations Rights’. Available at http://www.forestfutures.org/weyer_firstnations.html.
  25. Fowler, Penny and Simon Heap. 2000. ‘Bridging Troubled Waters: the Marine Stewardship Council’, in Jem Bendell, ed., Terms for Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Freeman, R.E. 1984. Strategic Management: a Stakeholder Approach. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Gandhi, M. 1997. ‘The Quest for Simplicity: My Idea of Swaraj’, in M. Rahmena and V. Bawtree, eds, The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  28. Haynes, Patricia H. 1991. ‘The Race to Save the Planet: Will Women Lose?’, Women’s Studies International Forum 14(5): 473–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hitchcock, Robert K. 1997. ‘Indigenous Peoples, Multinational Corporations and Human Rights’, Indigenous Affairs (April/May/June): 6–11.Google Scholar
  30. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000a. ‘Welcome’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/index.html. Last updated 27 September 2001.
  31. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000b. ‘Historic Agreements’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/historicagreements.html.
  32. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000c. ‘2000 Operations’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/operations.html.
  33. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000d. ‘The Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/sciencepanel.html.
  34. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000e. ‘Monitoring’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/monitoring.html.
  35. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2000f. ‘Questions and Answers’. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/QuestionsandAnswers.html.
  36. Iisaak (Iisaak Forest Resources). 2001. ‘Iisaak Achieves Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Certification for Forestry Operations in Clayoquot Sound’, press release. 27 July 2001. Clayoquot Sound. Available at http://www.iisaak.com/ PRJuly24.htm.
  37. Marchak, Patricia. 1983. Green Gold: the Forest Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Perss.Google Scholar
  38. Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs. 2001. Tla-o-qui-aht (Clayoquot)’. Available at http://www.aaf.gov.bc.ca/nations/nuuchah/660.stm.
  39. Morris, G. 1992. ‘International Law and Politics: Toward a Right to Self-Determination for Indigenous Peoples’, in M.A. Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization and Resistance. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  40. Murphy, David F. 1997. ‘Responsible International Trade: Key Issues and Best Practice’, New Academy of Business, London.Google Scholar
  41. Murphy, David F. and Jem Bendell. 1997. In the Company of Partners: Business Environmental Groups and Sustainable Development Post-Rio. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  42. Murphy, David F. and Gill Coleman. 2000. ‘Thinking Partners: Business, NGOs and the Partnership Concept’, in Jem Bendell, ed., Terms for Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council. 2001. ‘Looking Ahead’. Available at http://nuuchahnulth.org/trees.htm.
  44. ODI (Overseas Development Institute). 1999. ‘What Can We Do with a Rights-Based Approach to Development’, London: ODI. Available at http://www.odi.org.uk/briefing/3_99.html.Google Scholar
  45. Plant, Christopher and Judith Plant. 1991. Green Business: Hope or Hoax? Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers, and Devon: Green Books.Google Scholar
  46. Porter, M. and C. van der Linde. 1996. ‘Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate’, in R. Welford and R. Starkey, eds, The Earthscan Reader in Business and the Environment. London: EarthscanGoogle Scholar
  47. Rival, Laura. 1993. ‘Confronting Petroleum Development in the Ecuadorian Amazon: the Huaorani, Human Rights and Environmental Protection’, Anthropology in Action 16: 14–15.Google Scholar
  48. Samson, Colin. 2001. ‘Rights as the Reward for Simulated Cultural Sameness: the Innu in the Canadian Colonial Context’, in Jane K. Cowan, Marie-Benedicte Dembour and Richard A. Wilson, eds, Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Saro-Wiwa, Kenule. 1995. A Month and A Day — A Detention Diary. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  50. Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Shanin, T. 1997. ‘The Idea of Progress’, in M. Rahnema and V. Bawtree, eds, The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  52. Stafford, Edwin R. and Cathy L. Hartman. 2001. ‘Greenpeace’s “Greenfreeze Campaign”: Hurdling Competitive Forces in the Diffusion of Environmental Technology Innovation’, in K.P. Green Groenewegen and P.S. Hofman, eds, Ahead of the Curve: Cases of Innovation in Environmental Management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  53. Stafford, Edwin R., Michael Jay Polonski and Cathy L. Hartman. 2000. ‘Environmental NGO-Business Collaboration and Strategic Bridging: a Case Analysis of the Greenpeace-Foron Alliance’, Business Strategy and the Environment 9: 122–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Svendsen, Ann. 2000. ‘From Conflict to Collaboration: the Evolution of Corporate-Stakeholder Relationships in the Forest Sector’, unpublished paper. Available from author via: svendsen@sfu.ca.Google Scholar
  55. Tennant, Chris. 1994. ‘Indigenous Peoples, International Institutions and the International Legal Literature’, Human Rights Quarterly 16(1): 1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tennant, Paul. 1990. Aboriginal Peoples and Politics: the Indian Land Question in British Columbia 1849–1989. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  57. UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2001a. ‘Human Rights in Development — What is a Rights-Based Approach to Development?’ Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/development/approaches-04.html.
  58. UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2001b. ‘Human Rights in Development — What is Development from a Human Rights Perspective?’ Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/development/approaches-02.html.
  59. UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2001c. ‘Human Rights in Development — How do Rights-Based Approaches Differ and What Is The Value Added?’ Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/development/approaches-07.html.
  60. UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2001d. ‘Human Rights in Development — What are the Main Development Concerns of Indigenous Peoples?’ Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/development/approaches-08.html.
  61. UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2001e. ‘Human Rights in Development — Development as a Right’. Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/development/right-01.html.
  62. UNTCMD (United Nations Transnational Corporations and Management Division). 1993. ‘Transnational Investments and Operations on the Lands of Indigenous Peoples’, Report to the Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection on Minorities. New York: UNTCMD.Google Scholar
  63. Vogel, David. 1978. Lobbying the Corporation: Citizen Challenges to Business Authority. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  64. Wayne Dunn Associates. 2001. ‘The Changing Resource Development Paradigm — Maximising Sustainable Local Benefits from Resource Development’, Prepared for the Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Community Development Cooperatives and Volunteers, Mill Bay (BC): Wayne Dunn Associates.Google Scholar
  65. Weir, Anne. 2000. ‘Meeting Social and Environmental Objectives through Partnership: the Experience of Unilever’, in Jem Bendell, ed.. Terms for Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  66. Wheeler, David and Maria Sillanpää. 1997. The Stakeholder Corporation: a Blueprint for Maximizing Stakeholder Value. London: Pitman Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Wheeler, David, Richard Boele and Heike Fabig. 2002. ‘Paradoxes and Ethical Dilemmas for Stakeholder Responsive Firms in the Extractive Sector — Lessons from the Case of Shell and the Ogoni’, Journal of Business Ethics 39(3): 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson, Richard (ed.). 1997. Human Rights, Culture and Context, Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  69. Young, Elspeth. 1995. Third World in the First: Development and Indigenous Peoples. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jedrzej George Frynas and Scott Pegg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heike Fabig
  • Richard Boele

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations