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The Path to the World Bank’s Anti-Corruption Programme, 1981–1997

  • Heather Marquette
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Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

Conditionality in aid is not a new phenomenon, and there is extensive literature about it. Different analysts offer different definitions. Nherere defines conditionality as ‘the granting, withholding, suspension or reduction of economic aid, or other benefits, being made conditional upon the recipient country’s performance against other standards’,1 whereas Mosley defines it as ‘negotiation with the recipient government of a set of changes in economic policy that the recipient must implement in return for a loan or grant’.2 Gordon refers to conditionality as a set of ‘agreements between donors and recipients that exchange financial transfers (either grants or loans) by the donors for policy changes by the recipients’.3 Karl and Schmitter define it as ‘linking specific rewards explicitly to the meeting of specific norms, or even to the selection of specific institutions’.4 Hewitt and Killick describe it as ‘leverage’ to achieve policy change.5 To simplify, conditionality can be defined as a system of rewards and punishments. Funding is received for meeting the donor’s objectives, with sanctions applied if the objectives are not met. There are several ways to apply negative sanctions: withholding grants and loans, terminating funds and technical support for projects in progress, restrictions on trade or economic and political sanctions.

Keywords

Good Governance Liberal Democracy Authoritarian Regime Structural Adjustment Programme Political Liberty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

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Copyright information

© Heather Marquette 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Marquette
    • 1
  1. 1.International Development DepartmentUniversity of BirminghamUK

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