• Isao Miyaoka
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series


In the age of globalization, it is increasingly necessary to address the problem of political conflicts between international norms and domestic autonomy. International norms do not automatically spread through the world nor infiltrate into domestic societies. Although neorealists usually downplay the importance of international norms, even Robert Gilpin, a leading scholar of the school, admits that “After decades of unprecedented success, the postwar ‘compromise of embedded liberalism’ deteriorated and the clash between domestic autonomy and international norms reasserted itself in the major economies of the international system. The increasing interdependence of national economies in trade, finance, and macroeconomic policy conflicted more and more with domestic economic and social priorities.”1 This problem is not restricted to the economic issue area in an era of “ecological interdependence.”2 In the latter half of the 1980s, global environmental problems such as deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and biological diversity started to attract international political attention. At their Paris Summit meeting in 1989, for example, the Group of Seven leaders devoted one-third of the Economic Declaration to the environment.3


International Norm Minke Whale African Elephant Wildlife Protection International Whaling Commission 
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    Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law, 3rd edn (Cambridge: Grotius, 1991), pp. 93–5. Certain resolutions, such as those regarding budgets (see Article 17 of the UN Charter), have a legal effect on the UN organizations and member states of the United Nations.Google Scholar
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    This book does not directly address the legitimacy of governments and international organizations or that of an international order. As for state legitimacy, see, for example, Mlada Bukovansky, Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French Revolutions in International Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002); John Williams, Legitimacy in International Relations and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia (Basingstoke: Macmillan, now Palgrave, 1998). On a legitimate political order, see Henry A. Kissinger, A World Restored (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1964); Markus Jachtenfuchs, Thomas Diez, and Sabine Jung, “Which Europe? Conflicting Models of a Legitimate European Political Order,” European Journal of international Relations, vol. 4, no. 4 (1998), pp. 409–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Isao Miyaoka 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isao Miyaoka
    • 1
  1. 1.Osaka University of Foreign StudiesJapan

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