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Introduction

  • Isao Miyaoka
Chapter
  • 44 Downloads
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series

Abstract

In the age of globalization, it is increasingly necessary to address the problem of political conflicts between international norms and domestic autonomy. International norms do not automatically spread through the world nor infiltrate into domestic societies. Although neorealists usually downplay the importance of international norms, even Robert Gilpin, a leading scholar of the school, admits that “After decades of unprecedented success, the postwar ‘compromise of embedded liberalism’ deteriorated and the clash between domestic autonomy and international norms reasserted itself in the major economies of the international system. The increasing interdependence of national economies in trade, finance, and macroeconomic policy conflicted more and more with domestic economic and social priorities.”1 This problem is not restricted to the economic issue area in an era of “ecological interdependence.”2 In the latter half of the 1980s, global environmental problems such as deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and biological diversity started to attract international political attention. At their Paris Summit meeting in 1989, for example, the Group of Seven leaders devoted one-third of the Economic Declaration to the environment.3

Keywords

International Norm Minke Whale African Elephant Wildlife Protection International Whaling Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Robert Gilpin, The Political Economy of International Relations (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 389.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jim MacNeill, Pieter Winsemius, and Taizo Yakushiji, Beyond Interdependence: The Meshing of theWorlds Economy and the Earths Ecology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 4.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linda Starke, Signs of Hope: Working Towards Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 14.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Globe & Mail (30 January 1990) (quoted in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Overseas Public Relations Division, Kankyo mondai hanron shokanshu [Collection of Protest Letters regarding Environmental Issues] (Tokyo, 1991), p. 68).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law, 3rd edn (Cambridge: Grotius, 1991), pp. 93–5. Certain resolutions, such as those regarding budgets (see Article 17 of the UN Charter), have a legal effect on the UN organizations and member states of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patricia Birnie, “International Environmental Law: Its Adequacy for Present and Future Needs,” p. 53, in Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury, eds, The International Politics of the Environment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), pp. 51–84. See also Kenneth W. Abbot and Duncan Snidal, “Hard and Soft Law in International Governance,” International Organization, vol. 54, no. 3 (2000), pp. 37–72.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blaine Sloan, United Nations General Assembly Resolutions in Our Changing World (New York: Transnational Publishers, 1991); W. E. Butler, ed., International Law and the International System (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987), especially Chapters 1–4. It is true that the so-called “solidarist” theorists argue that a norm supported by consensus in the international community carries an international legal obligation. This argument, however, is a minority view in the legal literature. Sloan, United Nations General Assembly Resolutions in Our Changing World, pp. 87–8; Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), pp. 141–4.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Inis L. Claude, “Collective Legitimization as a Political Function of the United Nations,” p. 367, International Organization, vol. 20 (1966), pp. 367–79.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    For a brief account of the politics of international norms, see, for example, Martha Finnemore, National Interests in International Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996), pp. 135–9.Google Scholar
  10. 13.
    Gary King, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba, Designing Social Inquhy: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 6.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    Ann Florini, “The Evolution of International Norms,” p. 376, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 40 (1996), pp. 363–89.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 5th edn (New York: Alfred a Knopf, 1978), p. 12.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change,” pp. 889–90, International Organization, vol. 52, no. 4 (1998), pp. 887–917.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Chris Brown, International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), p. 3.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Ian Hurd, “Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics,” p. 392, International Organization, vol. 53, no. 2 (1999), pp. 379–408.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    Claude, “Collective Legitimization as a Political Function of the United Nations,” p. 368.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    This book does not directly address the legitimacy of governments and international organizations or that of an international order. As for state legitimacy, see, for example, Mlada Bukovansky, Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French Revolutions in International Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002); John Williams, Legitimacy in International Relations and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia (Basingstoke: Macmillan, now Palgrave, 1998). On a legitimate political order, see Henry A. Kissinger, A World Restored (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1964); Markus Jachtenfuchs, Thomas Diez, and Sabine Jung, “Which Europe? Conflicting Models of a Legitimate European Political Order,” European Journal of international Relations, vol. 4, no. 4 (1998), pp. 409–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Isao Miyaoka 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isao Miyaoka
    • 1
  1. 1.Osaka University of Foreign StudiesJapan

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