Arms and State

  • Everett Carl Dolman


The study of war has been aptly dubbed the “dismal science.”1 Its grisly calculations of blood spilt and lives lost make it appear a callous investigation in the academic disciplines of history, philosophy, law, and, of course, all the social sciences. It is the most passionate of social activities, yet it is eminently suitable to scientific inquiry, never separated from the violence and ardor that describe it, nor unduly biased by them. Objectivity is essential when dissecting this most cruel pursuit.


Political Participation Military Service Military Force Democratic State External Threat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stanislas Andreski, Military Organization and Society (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954), 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carl von Clausewitz, On War, edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 579.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    See John Keegan, A History of Warfare (New York: Vintage Books, 1993)Google Scholar
  4. Barbara Ehrenreich, Blood Rites (New York: Henry Holt, 1997).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Douglass North, Structure and Change in Economic History (New York: W.W. Norton, 1981).Google Scholar
  6. See also Douglass North and Robert Thomas, The Rise of the Western World (Cambridge: University Press, 1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. and Richard Bean, “War and the Birth of the Nation-State,” Journal of Economic History 33 (1973), 203–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Much of the contracting logic is theoretically based in Douglass North’s, “A Transaction Cost Theory of Politics,” Journal of Theoretical Politics 2 (1990), 355–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.
    Charles Tilly, “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime,” in Evans, Rueschmayer and Skocpol (eds.), Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 169–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 8.
    Arnold Toynbee, War and Civilization (New York: Oxford University Press, 1950)Google Scholar
  11. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History (London: Oxford University Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    Arthur Marwick, The Deluge (London: Bodley Head, 1965).Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    Bruce Porter, War and the Rise of the State (New York: Free Press, 1994), xiv.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    John Nef, War and Human Progress (Cambridge: Harvard Press, 1950).Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1934), 84Google Scholar
  16. See also Raymond Aron, War and Industrial Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    Werner Sombart, The Quintessence of Capitalism, new edition (New York: Fertig, 1967).Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    William McNeill, The Pursuit of Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    J.F.C. Fuller, The Foundations of the Science of War (London: Hutchinson, 1926)Google Scholar
  20. J.F.C. Fuller, Armament and History (New York: Scribner’s, 1942).Google Scholar
  21. 18.
    John Hale, War and Society in Renaissance Europe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  22. 19.
    John Ellis, The Social History of the Machine Gun (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975).Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Rosa Luxembourg, Selected Political Writings, Translated by William Graf (New York: Grove Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  24. 21.
    Heinrich von Treitschke, Politics (abridged), translated by Hans Kohn (New York: Harbinger, 1963), 300.Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    Max Weber, Max, General Economic History, translated by Frank Knight (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1927), 324.Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Otto Hintze, Historical Essays, translated by Felix Gilbert (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 181.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    Charles Tilly, “Reflections on the History of European State-Making,” in Charles Tilly (ed.), Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), 35–36. My emphasis.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    See Robert Gurr, Keith Jaggers, and Will Moore, “The Transformation of the Western State: The Growth of Democracy, Autocracy, and State Power since 1800,” Studies in Comparative International Development 25 (1990), 73–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Harry Eckstein, “A Theory of Stable Democracy,” Research Monograph 10 (Center for International Studies: Princeton, 1961).Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    See Edward Rhodes, Power and MADness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989)Google Scholar
  32. and John Gaddis, The Long Peace (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Frank Zagare, The Dynamics of Deterrence (Chicago: University Press, 1987), 93.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    John Mearsheimer, Conventional Deterrence (Ithaca: Cornell Press, 1983), 29.Google Scholar
  35. 38.
    Brian Downing, Military Revolution and Political Change (Princeton: University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  36. 39.
    Martin Edmonds, Armed Services and Society (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1988), 59.Google Scholar
  37. 41.
    Peter Riesenberg, Citizenship in the Western Tradition (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  38. 43.
    Max Weber, General Economic History, translated by Frank Knight (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1927), 324–5.Google Scholar
  39. 44.
    Everett Dolman, “Obligation and the Citizen-Soldier: Machiavellian Virtti versus Hobbesian Order,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 23 (1995), 191–212.Google Scholar
  40. 45.
    Isaiah Berlin, “The Originality of Machiavelli,” in Berlin (ed.), Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas (New York: MacMillan, 1975), 35.Google Scholar
  41. 46.
    Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State, and War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954), 307;Google Scholar
  42. Leo Strauss, Thoughts on Machiavelli (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  43. 47.
    William Bluhm, Theories of the Political System, second edition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971), 285.Google Scholar
  44. 48.
    Sheldon Wolin, Politics and Vision (Boston: Little-Brown, 1965), 207.Google Scholar
  45. 49.
    Niccolo Machiavelli, Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy, translated by Leslie Walker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950), chs. III, XLI.Google Scholar
  46. 50.
    See Robert Price, “Ambizione in Machiavelli’s Thought,” History of Political Thought 3 (1982), 193–221.Google Scholar
  47. 51.
    Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, in Richard Tuck (ed.), Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  48. 53.
    Niccolo Machiavelli, The Art of War, translated by Ellis Farneworth (New York: Da Capo, 1965), 3.Google Scholar
  49. 54.
    Jean Jacques Rousseau, La Nouvelle Heloise, cited in Carl Friedrich, Man and His Government (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963), 421.Google Scholar
  50. 55.
    Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace, translated by Ted Humphrey (Indianapolis, IN: Hacket, 1985).Google Scholar
  51. 56.
    Alexander Hamilton et al., The Federalist Papers (New York: Penguin, 1961), 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 59.
    McNeill, Pursuit of Power, 76–78; See also Sebastian de Grazia, Machiavelli in Hell (Princeton: University Press, 1989), 290–91.Google Scholar
  53. 61.
    Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War (New York: Free Press, 1989), 21.Google Scholar
  54. 62.
    Karl von Clausewitz, War, Politics, and Power, translated by Edward Colins (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1962), 70.Google Scholar
  55. 63.
    Earnst Breisach, Renaissance Europe (New York: MacMillan, 1973), 147.Google Scholar
  56. 65.
    Thomas Hobbes, The Collected Works of Thomas Hobbes, 11 volumes, edited by Sir William Molesworth (London: Routledge Thoemmes, 1992), vol II, 140.Google Scholar
  57. 66.
    Donald Hanson, “Hobbes ‘Highway to Peace’,” International Organization 38 (1984), 350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 68.
    Alfred Stepan, “The New Professionalism of Internal Warfare and the Military Role Expansionism,” in Stepan (ed.), Authoritarian Brazil (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973)Google Scholar
  59. referring to Samuel Huntington, The Soldier and the State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957)Google Scholar
  60. and Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier, revised edition (New York: Free Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  61. 69.
    John Mearsheimer, Conventional Deterrence (Ithaca: Cornell Press, 1983), 24–25.Google Scholar
  62. 70.
    Otto Hintze, The Historical Essays, translated by Felix Gilbert (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975)Google Scholar
  63. Alfred Vagts, A History of Militarism (New York: W.W. Norton, 1937).Google Scholar
  64. 72.
    Roy Macredis and Bernard Brown, “Legitimacy and Consensus,” in Macredis and Brown (eds.), Comparative Politics, fourth edition (Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1972), 99–105.Google Scholar
  65. 78.
    See John Gillis (ed.), The Militarization of the Western World (New Brunswick: NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 1.Google Scholar
  66. See also Volker Berghan, Militarism (Cambridge: University Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  67. 81.
    David Ralston, Importing the European Army (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  68. Samuel Finer, The Man on Horseback, second enlarged edition (Hammondsworth, England: Penguin, 1975).Google Scholar
  69. 90.
    Gaetano Mosca, The Ruling Class, translated by Hannah Kahn (New York: McGraw Hill, 1939), 229 and 245.Google Scholar
  70. 91.
    Bengt Abrahamsson, Military Professionalism and Political Power (Beverley Hills, CA: Sage, 1972).Google Scholar
  71. 92.
    Charles Moskos, “Institutional/Occupational Trends in Armed Forces,” Armed Forces and Society 4 (1977), 41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Charles Moskos, see also “Institutional/Occupational Trends in Armed Forces: An Update,” Armed Forces and Society 12 (1986), 377–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Everett Carl Dolman 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Everett Carl Dolman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations