Advertisement

Early Republics: Switzerland, the Dutch, and France

  • Everett Carl Dolman
Chapter
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

Profound social change is often preceded by technological innovation. The stirrup, for example, has been credited with transforming post-Roman Europe into a feudal society locally dominated by petty overlords.1 With the ability to stand solidly on stirrups attached to a saddle, instead of clinging precariously with the pressure of one’s knees, a mounted warrior could bring to bear the full impact of his arm and beast, and a devastating charge on the battlefield could sweep away any unorganized resistance. Those who could afford the expense of full body and horse armor, plus maintenance for himself, his horse, and his retinue, could presume to assert political dominance over a relatively compact area. Appropriately, with the demise of the Western Roman Empire, the sociopolitical system that emerged in the Medieval Europe was characterized by a large number of dispersed and relatively independent fiefdoms.

Keywords

Armed Force Northern Province National Guard Officer Corps Military Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    A controversial thesis detailed by Lynn White, Jr., Medieval Technology and Social Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Michael Roberts, The Military Revolution, 1560–1660 (Belfast: Belfast University Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  3. See also Michael Duffy (ed.), The Military Revolution and the State 1500–1800 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    See Hans Delbrück, History of the Art of War, volume III, translated by Walter Renfroe, Jr. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 506–17.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Michael Howard, War in European History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 12.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Michael Drake, Problematics of Military Power (London: Frank Cass, 2001), 227.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Robert O’Connel, Of Arms and Men (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 102.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War (New York: Free Press, 1989), 91.Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Geoffrey Parker, The Army of Flanders and the Spanish Road 1567–1659 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 5.Google Scholar
  10. 20.
    Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 2.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    Hendrik Van Loon, The Fall of the Dutch Republic, new edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1924), 5.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    Israel, Dutch Republic, 2. See also Hendrik Riemens, The Netherlands (New York: Eagle, 1944).Google Scholar
  13. 25.
    Adriaan Barnouw, The Pageant of Netherlands History (New York: Longmans, 1952), 114.Google Scholar
  14. 32.
    Cicely Wedgewood, William the Silent (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1944), 11.Google Scholar
  15. 36.
    Adriaan Barnouw, The Making ofModern Holland (New York: W.W. Norton, 1944), 68.Google Scholar
  16. 40.
    Barnouw, Pageant, 117. See also R.A. Stradling, The Armada of Flanders (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 64.
    Garret Mattingly, The Armada (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959), 42–45.Google Scholar
  18. 70.
    See William McNeill, The Pursuit of Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 128–29.Google Scholar
  19. 75.
    Gunther Rothenberg, “Maurice of Nassau, Gustavus Adolphus, Raimondo Montecuccoli, and the ‘Military Revolution’ of the Seventeenth Century,” in Peter Paret (ed.), Makers ofModern Strategy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 41.Google Scholar
  20. 84.
    Andrew Vincent, Theories of the State (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1987), 64–65.Google Scholar
  21. 85.
    David Kaiser, Politics and War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 142.Google Scholar
  22. 87.
    John Lynn, “A Quest for Glory,” in Murray Williamson, MacGreggor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein (eds), The Making of Strategy (Cambridge: University Press, 1994), 188–92.Google Scholar
  23. 88.
    Henry Guerlac, “Vauban: The Impact of Science on War,” in E.M. Earle (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy (Princeton: University Press, 1971), 26–48Google Scholar
  24. See also Francis Hebbert, Soldier of France (New York: Lang, 1981).Google Scholar
  25. 89.
    Russel Weigley, The Age of Battles (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 48–49.Google Scholar
  26. 90.
    Richard Preston, Sydney Wise, and Herman Werner, Men in Arms, revised edition (New York: Praeger, 1962), 113; see also Kaiser, War and Politics, 145–50.Google Scholar
  27. 91.
    Trevor Dupuy, Curt Johnson, and David Bongard, Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography (New York: Harper Collins, 1992), 491.Google Scholar
  28. 92.
    Bruce Porter, War and the Rise of the State (New York: Free Press, 1994), 110.Google Scholar
  29. 93.
    Geoffrey Symcox, The Crisis of French Seapower (Amsterdam: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974), 26.Google Scholar
  30. 94.
    Brian Downing, The Military Revolution and Political Change (Princeton: University Press, 1992), 129.Google Scholar
  31. 98.
    Francis Hebbert, Soldier of France (New York: Lang, 1981) 235.Google Scholar
  32. 99.
    Franklin Ford, Robe and Sword (New York: Harper, 1965), 96–104Google Scholar
  33. Bailey Stone, The French Parlements and the Crisis of the Old Regime (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986), 115–77.Google Scholar
  34. 100.
    Lee Kennet, The French Armies in the Seven Years’ War (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1967), ix.Google Scholar
  35. 108.
    Samuel Scott, The Response of the Royal Army to the French Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978), 7.Google Scholar
  36. 114.
    André Corvisier, L’Armée Française de la Fin du XVII Siècle au Ministére de Choiseul, two volumes (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964), I: 309.Google Scholar
  37. 137.
    Marx, of course, believed rural revolution to be impossible. A sophisticated assessment of the propensity for urban over rural revolutions in the west is provided by Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966)Google Scholar
  38. and Theda Skocpol, States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 151.
    See Liah Greenfield, Nationalism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), 180–84.Google Scholar
  40. 152.
    Simon Schama, Citizens (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1989), 281–83 and 292.Google Scholar
  41. 153.
    Robert Ergang, Europe: From the Rennaissance to Waterloo, revised edition (Boston: D.C. Heath, 1954), 328–29.Google Scholar
  42. 158.
    Geoffrey Best, War and Society in Revolutionary Europe, 1770–1870 (New York: St Martin’s, 1982), 71–72.Google Scholar
  43. 159.
    Peter Manicas, War and Democracy (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 209.Google Scholar
  44. 164.
    Gunther Rothenberg, The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon (Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 1980), 94.Google Scholar
  45. 170.
    Robert Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled (Princeton: University Press, 1942).Google Scholar
  46. 173.
    Stated by Committee-member Georges Jacques Danton in his pre-coup speech to the Legislative Assembly in 1792. Cited in Bartlett and Kaplan (eds.), Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations, sixteenth edition (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992), 364Google Scholar
  47. Pierre Baudry, “Lazare Carnot: Organizer of Victory-How the ‘Calculus of Enthusiasm’ Saved France,” The American Almanac, July 21, 1997.Google Scholar
  48. 174.
    See Sidney Watson, Carnot (London: Bodley Head, 1954).Google Scholar
  49. 177.
    John Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984), 55–57.Google Scholar
  50. 179.
    Heinrich von Treitschke, Politics, abridged and edited by Hans Kohn (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1963), 253.Google Scholar
  51. 181.
    Samuel Wilkenson, The Rise of General Bonaparte (Oxford: University Press, 1930).Google Scholar
  52. 184.
    Jean-Paul Bertrand, The Army of the French Revolution (Princeton: University Press, 1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Everett Carl Dolman 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Everett Carl Dolman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations