Genetics of Pediatric Tumors
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Cancer is a disease that arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic aberrations within the genome. In the case of pediatric cancer, these alterations often result in a less differentiated or more pluripotent state. The extracranial solid tumor neuroblastoma is one of the most heterogeneous pediatric neoplasms. Several genetic alterations such as MYCN amplification, DNA ploidy, and allelic loss of chromosomes 1p and 11q serve as powerful prognostic factors for the stratification of different subtypes of neuroblastoma. Recently, advances in high-throughput screening methods have revealed an additional source of powerful genetic indicators for disease stratification, the non-coding RNA genome. The most widely studied non-coding RNAs to date are miRNAs, and this chapter provides an insight into the clinical application of miRNA profiling and their future potential as a novel means of targeted therapeutic intervention.
KeywordsNeuroblastoma MicroRNA (miRNA) MYCN Risk stratification Targeted therapy
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